India Co-ordinated Research Project(AICRP) on Integrated
Farming System Research (IFSR), Dr. P.D.K.V, Akola
All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Cropping
Systems Research had its beginning at Akola (Maharashtra)
in 1953 as “Soil Fertility and Fertilizer
Use Project”. Later on renamed as “Model
Agronomic Experiment Centre” from 1968 with
full-fledged co-ordinated project. However, the
programme was under the Deptt. of Agriculture Maharashtra
state then the project was transferred Dr.PDKV,
Akola from 20.10.1969 on its formation. It was further
up-graded in 1983 to AICRP on Cropping Systems Research
with a Project Directorate (ICAR) at Modipuram,
During XI Plan PDCSR, Modipuram has again renamed
this Project in march, 2009 as Project Directorate
for Farming Systems Research (PDFSR) to undertake
remodeled programme under Integrated Farming Systems
Research mode operating through All India Co-ordinated
Research for Farming Systems with 37 'on-station'
(25 main + 12 sub centers) and 32 'on-farm' research
centers in five ecosystems, i.e., arid, semi-arid,
sub-humid, humid and coastal throughout the country
to develop location specific system based technologies.
|Hisar, S.K. Nagar, Siruguppa
||Ludhiana, Bichpuri, Kanpur, Durgapura,
Banswara, Indore, Junagadh, Akola, Rahuri, Rudrur, Parbhani,
Rajendranagar, Kathalagere, Coimbatore
||Faizabad, Varanasi, Pantnagar, Sehore,
Jabalpur, Rewa, Raipur, Ranchi, Chiplima, Bhubaneswar,
||R.S. Pura, Palampur, Kalyani, Jorhat
||Thanjavur, Maruteru, Navsari, Karmana,
Institutes based centres:
- ICAR Research Complex Goa,
- ICAR Research Complex Patna,
- ICAR Research Complex Umiam,
- ICAR Research Complex Port Blair,
- PDCSR Modipuram, Meerut
|| Arid ecosystem
||Jagudan (Gujrat), Mandor (Rajasthan),
||Nandyal (A.P.), Guntur (A.P.), Vadodara
(Gujrat), Mandya (Karnataka), Bheemrayangudi (Karnataka),
Nagpur (Maharastra), Udaipur (Rajasthan), Jhansi (U.P.),
Karnal (Haryana), Ambajogai (Maharastra), Igatpuri (Maharastra),
Vridhachalam (T.N.), Tirunelveli (T.N.), Haridwar(Uttranchal
), Sultanpur (U.P.)
||Samastipur (Bihar), Morena (M.P.), Chhindwara
(M.P.), Kalahandi (Orissa), Faizabad (U.P.), Ranchi
(Bihar), Sirmaur (H.P.), Rajouri (J & K), Ambikapur
(M.P.), Lohardaga (Jharkhand)
||Thanjavur, Maruteru, Navsari, Karmana,
Region of Maharashtra:
Vidarbha region of Maharashtra falls under A.E.Z.
6,10 and 12 with Akola, Buldana, Amravati, Yavatmal
districts in A.E.Z. 6.3, Nagpur, Wardha in 10.2, Bhandara,
Gondia in 10.4 and Chandrapur, Gadchiroli in 12.1.
Vidarbha zone is located at a longitude of between,
75o57’ to 80o59’ E and latitude of between,
17o57’ to 21o46’ N. Akola district is
located at longitude 77o02’ E and latitude 20o42’
N and at a altitude 312.7 m above MSL. Climate of
the region is semi-arid to sub-humid with rainfall
ranging from 700 mm in Western districts to more than
1250 mm in Eastern districts. Rains are received from
June to September due to south-west monsoon. July
and August are wet months. The rainy days range is
47 to 65. Few showers are also received in October.
High temperatures are expected during summer with
maximum temperature of 45o C in May while November
to February is cold span with minimum temperature
touching to 10o C in Dec./January. The region is divided
into three Agroclimatic zones viz;
I Western Vidarbha Zone(
Assured rainfall zone ): Rainfall 700 - 950
mm (Washim, Akola, Buldana and Amravati districts.)
II Central Vidarbha Zone(Medium
to heavy rainfall zone): Rainfall 950 - 1250
mm (Wardha, Nagpur, Yavatmal and part of Chandrapur
III Eastern Vidarbha Zone(High
rainfall zone ) :Rainfall 1250 - 1700 mm
(Bhandara, Gondia, Gadchiroli, part of Chandrapur
district and Umred & Bhiwapur tahsils of Nagpur
|The total area under this
scheme is 3 ha at main centre, Akola with Irrigation
potential of a tube well available in field.
- To develop profitable and energy efficient cropping
systems with special emphasis on oilseeds, pulses
and fodder crops
- To develop integrated nutrient management supply
and management systems with emphasis on locally
available resources and
- To improve fertilizer use efficiency in cropping
systems through the use of efficient carriers, amendments
and residual effects.
Operating at Station
Activities / Achievements/ Recommendations
|Important technologies generated as a
result of on station experiments and experiments on
cultivator’s field have been summarized as below
(1984-85 to 2008-09)
centre Akola – On Station Research
recommended crop sequences i.e. sorghum-wheat-green
gram was the best in respect of grain productivity
and monetary returns on medium black soil under irrigation
and adequate input conditions. Alternatively any one
of the following sequences should be adopted for higher
monetary returns (1985-86 to 1988-89).
• Groundnut-wheat-maize (F) and
• Sorghum- safflower-cowpea (F)
2) It is recommended that 30 kg P2O5/ha to both the
crops should be supplied through Ammonium Polyphosphate
in to sorghum-wheat crop sequence under irrigation
for higher productivity (1985-86 to 1988-89).
3) Cotton-summer groundnut crop sequence has been
recommended for getting higher monetary returns under
irrigated and adequate input conditions (1989-90 to
4) Amongst the several cropping systems tried, chilli
(green)-groundnut is recommended under irrigated condition
(1992-93 to 1994-95).
5) Application of NPK 50% higher than the recommended
dose along with, 15 tons FYM/ha to sorghum and recommended
plant population should be maintained for maximum
yield under continuous cropping of Sorghum-Wheat (1992-93
6) Under situation of irrigation water availability
up to the month of March, sorghum-wheat and sorghum-chickpea
crop sequences are recommended. In addition, soybean-wheat
and sorghum-sunflower crop sequences are also recommended
(1994-95 to 1996-97).
7) For sustainable productivity of cotton-summer groundnut
cropping system, application of recommended dose of
phosphorus was advisable to summer groundnut only.
(1190-91 to 1994-95)
8) Considering monetary return, B:C ratio, productivity
and sustainability it is recommended to grow sorghum
– chickpea in the first year and maize- wheat
or soybean – wheat or soybean – sunflower
in the second year with recommended package of practices
(199798 to 2002-03).
9) For more productivity, monetary benefit and economy
in water use and improvement in soil fertility the
sorghum-chickpea or soybean-chickpea sequences should
adopted with recommended irrigations (2002-03 to 2004-05).
10) Considering productivity, monetary return, water
use economy and improvement in soil fertility it is
recommended to adopt soybean-rabi sorghum sequence
with two to three irrigations at primordia initiation
(30-35 DAS), flowering (70-75 DAS) and/or grain filling
(85-95 DAS) stages to sorghum (2002-03 to 2004-05).
11) In maize – chickpea cropping system it is
recommended to apply 3/4th recommended NPK through
fertilizer, 1/4th recommended N through leucaena lopping
(46.15 q/ha) + azotobacter application to maize and
½ recommended N, P dose to succeeding chickpea
for higher productivity, monetary return and soil
fertility build up (2003-04 to 2005-06).
12) In sorghum-chickpea crop sequence, application
of FYM 5 t/ha coupled with 75% RDF (60:30:30 NPK kg
/ha) and seed treatment with Azotobacter and PSB (each
250 g/ 10 kg of seed) to sorghum and 75% RDF (19:38:00
NPK kg /ha) with Rhizobium and PSB seed treatment
(each 250 g/ 10 kg of seed) to chickpea is recommended
for obtaining higher monetary returns, sustainable
yield and soil fertility buildup under protective
Centre, ECF – On Farm Research (Central Vidarbha
Under irrigated conditions,
groundnut-wheat and hybrid sorghum- wheat crop
sequences should be followed for higher gross
monetary returns. (Nagpur, 1984-85 to 1986-87)
For maximum gross monetary
returns, rice (Sakoli-6) in kharif and wheat (NI-5439)
on residual moisture in rabi should be taken with
recommended fertilizer dose in rice-wheat crop
sequence as against the traditional monoculture
practice of growing long duration variety of rice
alone. (Nagpur, 1984-85 to 1986-87).
Green gram (TAP-7)-safflower
(Bhima) crop sequence under improved practices
with recommended fertilizer dose of 20:40:0 kg
NPK/ha to green gram and 25:25:0 kg NPK/ha to
safflower should be adopted under rainfed condition
for higher yields than the farmers’ practice.
(Yavatmal, 1993-94 to 1995-96)
Under rainfed condition, broad
bed furrow (BBF) technology for groundnut in kharif
and chickpea in rabi should be adopted for increasing
the productivity in groundnut-chickpea crop sequence.
(Yavatmal, 1993-94 to 1995-96)
Vidarbha zone, (WVZ)
Under limited irrigation availability
up to the month of February, Maize-sunflower or
sorghum-sunflower cropping systems be followed
for higher monetary returns (Buldhana, 1997-98
In Sorghum-Wheat crop sequence
50% recommended dose of N should be applied through
leucaena loppings (5t/ha) or FYM (10t/ha) + 50%
NPK through inorganic fertilizer to sorghum and
recommended dose through inorganic fertilizer
to wheat for higher productivity, monetary return
and nitrogen economy. This confirms the earlier
recommendation of on station experiments (Buldhana,
1997-98 to 1998-99)
Double cropping (Kharif
Profitable Crop sequence under rainfed as
well as limited irrigation.
(Soybean – Chickpea / Rabi Sorghum)
Vidarbha region due to erratic behavior of rainfall
availability of water is not adequate to sustain
the crop. As a result irrigated cropping system
in this region is neglected. The reason behind
this mainly water shortage in the profile and
non availability of sufficient irrigation water
for the rabi crops. Therefore, it is felt necessary
to design efficient cropping system so as to
cater the needs and sustain under limited water
condition at the same time soil fertility is
one of the important aspects which needs the
Soybean is emerging as a major Kharif crop and
what will be the profitable option after harvest
of soybean. Therefore, Soybean – Chickpea/Rabi
Sorghum cropping system is the best option under
available moisture or under limited irrigation
for the region.
Considering productivity, monetary return, water
use economy and improvement in soil fertility
it is recommended to adopt Soybean – Chickpea
and Soybean-rabi Sorghum sequence with two to
three irrigations at primordia initiation (30-35
DAS), flowering (70-75 DAS) and / or grain filling
(85-95 DAS) stages to sorghum.
Merits of Soybean – Chickpea / Rabi Sorghum
• Low cost management crop sequence
• Higher Productivity under rainfed condition.
• Higher net monetary returns.
• Maintain fertility of the soil by adding
dry mater (Leaves).
• Create crop cover on surface of land
and result in reduction of runoff and soil loss.
• Production of quality grains because
of escape from grain mold.
• Meet food and fodder requirements.
Nutrient Management for sustainable soil health
INM in Sorghum-Wheat crop sequence
soil fertility depression will assume serious
limitation in future for sustainable agriculture.
Not only a part of the plant nutrient need can
be met by organic manure, crop residue, green
manuring and biofertilizers, but in many cases
they may act synergistically with mineral fertilizers.
INM system is the key to get the best out of
the both and assure sustained crop production.
Considering the above facts study has been taken
and given fallowing recommendations.
The long term experiment on integrated nutrient
supply system is continue since 1984-85 at CSR,
Unit. The object of the experiment is to develop
suitable integrated nutrient supply system for
cereal based crop sequence involving more efficient
use of fertilizers in conjunction with a combination
of organic manures for improving crop productivity
without deteriorating the long-term soil fertility.
The results revealed that in permanent plot
experiment on integrated nutrient supply system
in sorghum-wheat cropping system recommended
dose of NPK fertilizer could be reduced by 50%
to kharif sorghum and substituting 50% N through
FYM (10 t /ha) or leucaena loppings ( 9 t /ha)
and in rabi 100 % recommended dose to wheat
for sustainable and high yield of both the crops
with remarkable improvement in soil fertility
Merits of INM in crop sequence.
• Reduce the quantity of chemical fertilizers
( up to 50%).
• Higher total productivity
• Improving quality of produce.
• Restoring fertility and productivity
of the land that has been degraded
• Correction in inherent soil nutrient
• Environmental safety.
rotation for sustainable soil health
Multiple cropping (Cereal - legume – oilseed)
Vidarbha region 80-90% area is under kharif
crops and on remaining area both kharif and
rabi crops are cultivated and very few area
is under summer crops cultivation. But looking
towards the increasing population day by day
and to fulfill the food requirement of the increasing
population and fodder requirement for animals.
It is necessary to cultivate more than one crop
in a year.
The doubled cropping can be possible in rainfed
condition of Vidarbha region by adopting appropriate
agronomic techniques of moisture conservation.
Now a days it is essential to take multiple
cropping where there is a perennial source of
For maintaining soil fertility and control the
life cycle of pest, disease and weed. Crop rotation
Considering the above requirement the experiment
was conducted (1997 – 2003) with an objective
to study the effect of rotation of crop sequences
and changing proportions of cereals, legumes
and oilseeds on crop productivity and soil fertility.
The results revealed that, considering the monetary
returns, benefit cost ratio, comparable total
grain productivity and maintenance of soil fertility,
a two years crop rotation of sorghum –chickpea,
in the first year and maize – wheat or
soybean – wheat or soybean – sunflower
in the second year should be grown with recommended
package of practices.
Merits of Crop rotation.
• Diversification of crops helps in reducing
financial loss due to unfavorable weather conditions.
• Overall increase in the yield due to
addition of organic matter ultimately improve
• Incidence of pest, disease and weeds
• Helps to prevent soil erosion.
• Meet various needs of the farmer.
crop sequences with fertilizer and irrigation
management were recommended for the farmers
of this region under rainfed as well as irrigated
Prof. B.V. Saoji
All India Co-ordinated Research Project on
Integrated Farming Systems Research,
Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth
Akola -444104 (Maharashtra)
Phone : (91) - (0724) 2258200 – 2258217 (1058)
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